Advancement in DNA Extraction

Advancement in DNA Extraction

DNA extraction is a technique to separate DNA from cell membranes, proteins, and other biological components from a sample using physical and/or chemical processes.


The process of obtaining DNA is essential to biotechnology. It serves as the basis for a wide range of applications, from basic study to regular diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making. Determining the distinctive properties of DNA, such as its size, shape, and function, also requires extraction and purification.

In 1869, Swiss physician Friedrich Miescher, who was working in the lab of scientist Felix Hoppe-Seyler, first isolated DNA. He did this as part of a study to identify the chemical make-up of cells, which he considered the key to unlocking the fundamentals of cellular life. Leucocytes, or white blood cells, were obtained from pus found on fresh surgical bandages and were collected from a nearby surgical clinic. Initially, he started this research using lymphocytes extracted from lymph nodes but was unable to obtain adequate amounts for examination. During the course of his research on leucocytes, he discovered that a material precipitated when acid was added and that it dissipated when alkali was added. Because it was found in the cell's nucleus, Mierscher chose the name "nuclein" for the novel substance. After additional examination, Miescher discovered that the substance's chemical make-up was distinct from that of known compounds like proteins. He made the assumption that it was essential to cells and that it was involved in cell division. Miescher then created a technique for separating nuclein from salmon sperm. Since the time of Miescher, numerous improvements have been made to the techniques for extracting and purifying DNA. Beginning in the 1950s, density gradient centrifuges were required for everyday laboratory DNA extraction. Most DNA extraction techniques were complicated, labor-intensive, and time-consuming until quite recently. Additionally, they only contributed a modest amount of DNA. Various specialised extraction techniques are available today. Typically, these are column-based or solution-based. With the introduction of commercial kits and the automation of the procedure, DNA extraction has significantly improved. These modifications have accelerated manufacturing and enhanced DNA yield


1. Forensics

DNA is a key component in many criminal investigations. DNA extraction can happen from samples such as hair, skin, or blood. DNA is often used by forensic teams to decide whether to keep a person as a suspect or rule them out. Sometimes DNA can establish a person's innocence or guilt, or at the very least, it can establish a person's proximity to the murder scene.

2. Paternity Testing

The paternity of a child can also be established with the help of DNA extraction. DNA evidence from both the possible father and the child can support or refute a person's claims to paternity, depending on whether they want to establish their paternity or not.

3. Ancestry Tracing

DNA extraction helps a person identify their direct ancestors. A person can find out all the places from where their ancestors originated, as well as any surviving relatives who could still be alive, and even any medical or dietary issues to which they are predisposed, with the help of contemporary DNA kits.

4. Diagnostics

To properly diagnose medical disorders, particularly those that are genetic, DNA must be extracted. Examples that are frequently used are Down syndrome, Huntington's disease, and cystic fibrosis. Identification of disease carriers through DNA extraction is another benefit.

5. Genetic Engineering

DNA extraction is useful in the genetic modification of both plants and animals. In order to locate, isolate, and extract the desired gene for replication in following generations of plants, DNA can be helpful for plants. Species DNA extraction is useful for a variety of purposes, including cloning and the transfer of genetic material from one animal to another.

6. Vaccinations

Vaccines play a vital role in helping to prevent and control disease. Some of these vaccines can be developed with the help of DNA. DNA vaccines are frequently used in the production of many animal vaccines and some human vaccinations in general, despite the fact that they are not entirely approved for use on humans. For example, DNA extraction helps with the Hepatitis B vaccine, specifically through recombinant DNA.

7. Hormones

Human growth and development depend on hormones. Recombinant DNA technology aids in the development of artificial hormones through DNA extraction. Two major examples of hormones that use DNA extraction include:

  1. Human growth hormones: A large number of people suffering from several conditions benefit from these hormones. Human growth hormones, for instance, help in the treatment of Tumer's syndrome, renal cancer, and growth-related disorders.
  2. Insulin: People with diabetes, especially those with type I diabetes, frequently require insulin. Recombinant DNA helps in the synthesis of insulin.

Without an accurate and reliable DNA extraction method, the production of these hormones would not be possible. Researchers are able to determine the best proteins that can help people with the various conditions mentioned above.

8. Agriculture

DNA isolation is also used in agriculture to identify crops, agronomic trait genes, and markers used in breeding. It plays an important role in plant selection and in producing genetically modified species with desired traits. The main concept behind the production of "golden rice" uses DNA as the base for trait modification to increase vitamin A (retinol) content.

The methods of DNA extraction are very exhaustive and time-consuming; therefore, for ease, there are ready-made kits available in the market for scientists to use.

Right DNA Extraction Kit Requires for High-Quality DNA

It is crucial that a DNA extraction kit offer high-quality DNA as molecular biology procedures become more delicate. High-purity DNA and low amounts of impurities, especially inhibitory chemicals, are necessary for methods like automated sequencing.

The DNA-binding medium is essential to a successful DNA extraction kit. To provide high yields, the medium must firmly bind DNA across a sizable surface area. To allow for the elution of proteins, RNA, and low-molecular weight molecules from the binding medium under low-salt buffer conditions before the DNA is eluted, DNA binding media should also demonstrate weak binding to proteins and other molecules.

Advantages of DNA Extraction Kits Over Traditional Methods

  • Rapid purification of high-quality DNA
  • DNA is ready for PCR, sequencing, cloning, and other downstream applications
  • Contaminants such as bacterial DNA and proteins are removed
  • Effective purification from high-protein media such as terrific broth (TB)
  • Cost-effective protocol
  • No hazardous chemicals such as phenol or chloroform
  • No ethanol precipitation is required
  • Benchtop centrifugation or a simple vacuum manifold—no ultracentrifugation

Other Genomic DNA Extraction Kits

Using a DNA extraction kit to obtain genomic DNA requires a specific procedure, which varies by source. Alternative cell lysis and wash methods that have been tailored for popular cell and tissue types are typically available in each DNA extraction kit. Environmental samples frequently contain a variety of contaminants that must be eliminated because they interfere with subsequent uses. For instance, Taq polymerases and other enzymes are inhibited by the high concentrations of humic acid found in soil. In order to efficiently remove humic acid from the bacterial DNA, a DNA extraction kit for the separation of bacterial DNA from soil samples is required. In addition to genomic DNA, forensic testing frequently examines mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The yield of the tiny, circular mtDNA may therefore be increased by optimising a DNA extraction kit created for forensic applications. Forensics can benefit from mtDNA in a number of ways. Most cells only have two copies of their nuclear DNA and hundreds of copies of their mitochondrial genome. This implies that there is a higher chance of obtaining forensically valuable data in very small samples or those that have experienced deterioration.

Circulating, Cell-Free DNA Kit

The clinical value of circulating, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) for non-invasive disease detection, diagnosis, and monitoring is significant. At 170 base pairs (bp), the size distribution peak of cfDNA, which are typically short DNA fragments with the potential to be used as a screening tool for cancer and tumours as well as foetal DNA research. Since circulating DNA is typically present in small amounts, it can be difficult to extract it. Accurate, reliable techniques are required to recover the less common cfDNA with greater sensitivity.

DNA has a wide spectrum of uses in several disciplines. Its extensive range of applications is exhaustive, illustrating and demonstrating its importance in modern biology. The discovery of DNA has had a positive impact on science, helping researchers in their quest to understand more about the genetics of several organisms. Information gathered from DNA has been beneficial in understanding epidemiology, ultimately improving our quality of life.

We, BTL Biotechnolab Pvt. Ltd., as a channel partner of Omega Bio-tek, offer a wide range of quick DNA extraction kits for Blood & Bodily Fluids, Circulating DNA, Cultured Cells & Tissues, Insect & Molluscs, Plant & Fungal, Soil, Stool & Water, Viral/Pathogen, Yeast & Bacteria. Since 1999, Omega Bio-tek has earned a reputation for delivering innovations in nucleic acid purification. Omega Bio-tek manufactures high-quality DNA and RNA isolation products for clinical and basic research, biotechnology, genomic and agricultural applications and offer superior nucleic acid extraction technologies, utilizing an array of techniques including magnetic beads, silica membranes, and salting-out.

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