Natural compounds Available at Biotechnolabs


Natural compounds Available at Biotechnolabs



Historically, spices had been used in food and as medicines since ages. They were also used as a valuable item for trade and as a monetary source. Their applications in perfumes, cosmetics and as preservatives are popular all among the world. Keeping spices in the background further natural compounds (NC) had been explored for their pharmaceutical properties. And if NC has to be defined then they are defined as any product synthesized by a living organism, majorly by plants.  They have played an important role in the area of drug discovery and also in the field of food additives, fragnances and flavouring agents.  These substances are in use as food additives because of their antimicrobial properties. NC had played a key role not only in the treatment of cancer and other infectious diseases but also other diseases like cardiovascular diseases and multiple sclerosis. Approximately 50% of the FDA approved drugs are NC. NC have special features in comparison to synthetic compounds like enormous scaffold diversity and structural complexity which provide enough opportunity for the discovery of novel low molecular weight compounds. They are structurally optimized by evolution to serve various biological functions. NC provides ligands for disease related targets and plays a critically important role in the disease cellular pathways. With everyday development of large scale analysis of network scientist had been exploring the mechanism of action of these NC in the context of their functions like drug target network, protein-protein interaction, metabolic pathways and disease pathways. In the present scenario researchers have done enough analysis on NC in terms of their chemical diversity, molecular scaffold, property distribution, chemical space, classification and also their relation with other compound collections.

NC are generally secondary metabolites of the plants and it is well known that the secondary metabolites are generally not essential for the growth, development and reproduction of the plant and are produced by the plants in the process of adaptation to certain environment or as a defense mechanism against a predator. These metabolites are synthesized or derived from the basic pathways like photosynthesis, glycolysis and kreb cycle in the form of intermediates. They are generally extracted from plant roots, bulbs, barks, leaves and stem.

These days NC are preferred over chemotherapeutic agents in cancer treatment because of the development of resistance and toxic effects of the drugs. These NC have anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and various other properties which have actually had scientist to exploit these NC for therapeutic purposes. There are various classes of these NC present in the living system.

Alkaloids are the cyclic nitrogen containing compound having a negative oxidation state and they have the basic properties of hetrocyclic tertiary nitrogen. Alkaloids are derived from amino acids like phenylalaninetyrosinetryptophanornithine, and lysine. These have strong activities in human due to their structural relationship with neurotransmitters. They have medicinal properties and they can pass membranes in neutral form.

Steroids are organic compounds with 4 ring structure arranged specifically. They have two basic functions: being a part of the membrane they alter membrane fluidity and a part of signaling molecules. Animal steroids are in the form of sex hormones and plant steroids are cardiac glycosides, the phytosterols and many phytohormones.

Lignans are polyphenolic compounds found in plants possessing 2,3-dibenzylbutane structure. They are the fiber associated compounds of the plants. They are converted into various forms by gut bacteria which have different biological activities like estrogen receptor activation, anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects. Hence the research between the association of lignans and human health is an upcoming field.

Iridoids are a large group of monoterpenoids having an oxygen containing six membered ring which is fused to a cyclopentane ring. They are defense chemicals against herbivores and pathogens. They exhibit a wide variety of activities like cardiovascular, anti-inflammatoryantispasmodicantitumor, antiviral, and immunomodulatory activities.

Phenols are the largest group of plant secondary metabolites having variation in sizes from simple structures to aromatic rings to complex structures like lignins. Many essential oils are phenols which are responsible for taste. They are believed to be the byproducts of the metabolism of phenylalanine.

Flavanoids are the most studied phytochemicals due to their various health benefits and have variations in their chemical structures. Flavonoids include flavonols, flavones, flavanones, anthocyanidins, and isoflavones. They are found in the form of aglycones or glycosides in many fruits and vegetables. They have various biological activities like antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-mutagenic, cardioprotective, modulators of enzymatic activity, and anticancer activity.

Chalcones are α,β-unsaturated ketones (trans-1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones), consisting of two aromatic rings (A and B) attached by α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system with variety of substituents. They have cytoprotective and modulatory functions which is responsible for their therapeutic property. Chalcones and their derivatives possess anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-mitotic properties.

Xanthones are biologically active, oxygenated heterocyclic compounds having antimicrobial, antidiabteic, antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, cytotoxic and enzyme inhibitory properties.

Quinones are cyclohexadienediones whose carbonyl groups can be either 1,2 or 1,4 to each other. They are mild oxidizing agents. Their derivatives are studied as hypoxia selective tumor activated prodrugs.  They are also used in manufacturing dye fabrics.

Coumarins are secondary metabolites and are benzopyrine derivates. They possess anticanceranticoagulantantimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-thrombotic, anti-tuberculosis, antiviral, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory activities.

Apart from these classes there are many more classes of NC which have enormous biological activities and have therapeutical potential which needs to be explored further. So the purest form of these NC are required by the researchers for research purposes. We are here to provide you your desired category of NC.